Trip Report: C++ Standards Meeting in Toronto, July 2017

Summary / TL;DR

Project What’s in it? Status
C++17 See below Draft International Standard published; on track for final publication by end of 2017
Filesystems TS Standard filesystem interface Part of C++17
Library Fundamentals TS v1 optional, any, string_view and more Part of C++17
Library Fundamentals TS v2 source code information capture and various utilities Published!
Concepts TS Constrained templates Merged into C++20 with some modifications
Parallelism TS v1 Parallel versions of STL algorithms Part of C++17
Parallelism TS v2 Task blocks, library vector types and algorithms and more Under active development
Transactional Memory TS Transaction support Published! Uncertain whether this is headed towards C++20
Concurrency TS v1 future.then(), latches and barriers, atomic smart pointers Published! Parts of it headed for C++20
Concurrency TS v2 See below Under active development
Networking TS Sockets library based on Boost.ASIO Voted for publication!
Ranges TS Range-based algorithms and views Voted for publication!
Coroutines TS Resumable functions, based on Microsoft’s await design Voted for publication!
Modules TS A component system to supersede the textual header file inclusion model Preliminary Draft voted out for balloting by national standards bodies
Numerics TS Various numerical facilities Under active development
Graphics TS 2D drawing API Under active design review
Reflection Code introspection and (later) reification mechanisms Introspection proposal passed core language and library design review; next stop is wording review. Targeting a Reflection TS.
Contracts Preconditions, postconditions, and assertions Proposal passed core language and library design review; next stop is wording review.

Some of the links in this blog post may not resolve until the committee’s post-meeting mailing is published. If you encounter such a link, please check back in a few days.


A couple of weeks ago I attended a meeting of the ISO C++ Standards Committee (also known as WG21) in Toronto, Canada (which, incidentally, is where I’m based). This was the second committee meeting in 2017; you can find my reports on previous meetings here (November 2016, Issaquah) and here (February 2017, Kona). These reports, particularly the Kona one, provide useful context for this post.

With the C++17 Draft International Standard (DIS) being published (and its balloting by national standards bodies currently in progress), this meeting was focused on C++20, and the various Technical Specifications (TS) we have in flight.

What’s the status of C++17?

From a technical point of view, C++17 is effectively done.

Procedurally, the DIS ballot is still in progress, and will close in August. Assuming it’s successful (which is widely expected), we will be in a position to vote to publish the final standard, whose content would be the same as the DIS with possible editorial changes, at the next meeting in November. (In the unlikely event that the DIS ballot is unsuccessful, we would instead publish a revised document labelled “FDIS” (Final Draft International Standard) at the November meeting, which would need to go through one final round of balloting prior to publication. In this case the final publication would likely happen in calendar year 2018, but I think the term “C++17” is sufficiently entrenched by now that it would remain the colloquial name for the standard nonetheless.)


With C++17 at the DIS stage, C++20 now has a working draft and is “open for business”; to use a development analogy, C++17 has “branched”, and the standard’s “trunk” is open for new development. Indeed, several changes have been voted into the C++20 working draft at this meeting.

Technical Specifications

This meeting was a particularly productive one for in-progress Technical Specifications. In addition to Concepts (which had already been published previously) being merged into C++20, three TSes – Coroutines, Ranges, and Networking – passed a publication vote this week, and a fourth, Modules, was sent out for its PDTS ballot (a ballot process that allows national standards bodies to vote and comment on the proposed TS, allowing the committee to incorporate their feedback prior to sending out a revised document for publication).

Coroutines TS

The Coroutines TS – which contains a stackless coroutine design, sometimes called co_await after one of the keywords it uses – had just been sent out for its PDTS ballot at the previous meeting. The results were in before this meeting began – the ballot had passed, with some comments. The committee made it a priority to get through all the comments at this meeting and draft any resulting revisions, so that the revised TS could be voted for final publication, which happened (successfully) during the closing plenary session.

Meanwhile, an independent proposal for stackful coroutines with a library-only interface is making its way through the Library groups. Attempts to unify the two varieties of coroutines into a single design seem to have been abandoned for now; the respective proposal authors maintain that the two kinds of coroutines are useful for different purposes, and could reasonably co-exist (no pun intended) in the language.

Ranges TS

The Ranges TS was sent out for its PDTS ballot two meetings ago, but due to the focus on C++17, the committee didn’t get through all of the resulting comments at the last meeting. That work was finished at this meeting, and this revised TS also successfully passed a publication vote.

Networking TS

Like the Ranges TS, the Networking TS was also sent out for its PDTS ballot two meetings ago, and resolving the ballot comments was completed at this meeting, leading to another successful publication vote.

Modules TS

Modules had come close to being sent out for its PDTS ballot at the previous meeting, but didn’t quite make it due to some procedural mis-communication (detailed in my previous report if you’re interested).

Modules is kind of in an interesting state. There are two relatively mature implementations (in MSVC and Clang), whose development either preceded or was concurrent with the development of the specification. Given this state of affairs, I’ve seen the following dynamic play out several times over the past few meetings:

  • a prospective user, or someone working on a new implementation (such as the one in GCC), comes to the committee seeking clarification about what happens in a particular scenario (like this one)
  • the two existing implementers consult their respective implementations, and give different answers
  • the implementers trace the difference in outcome back to a difference in the conceptual model of Modules that they have in their mind
  • the difference in the conceptual model, once identified, is discussed and reconciled by the committee, typically in the Evolution Working Group (EWG)
  • the implementers work with the Core Working Group (CWG) to ensure the specification wording reflects the new shared understanding

Of course, this is a desirable outcome – identifying and reconciling differences like this, and arriving at a specification that’s precise enough that someone can write a new implementation based purely on the spec, is precisely what we want out of a standards process. However, I can’t help but wonder if there isn’t a more efficient way to identify these differences – for example, by the two implementers actually studying each other’s implementations (I realize that’s complicated by the fact that one is proprietary…), or at least discussing their respective implementation strategies in depth.

That said, Modules did make good progress at this meeting. EWG looked at several proposal changes to the spec (I summarize the technical discussion below), CWG worked diligently to polish the spec wording further, and in the end, we achieved consensus to – finally – send out Modules for its PDTS ballot!

Parallelism TS v2

The Parallelism TS v2 (working draft here) picked up a new feature, vector and wavefront policies. Other proposals targeting it, like vector types and algorithms, are continuing to work their way through the library groups.

Concurrency TS v2

SG 1, the Study Group that deals with concurrency and parallelism, reviewed several proposals targeting the Concurrency TS v2 (which still does not yet have a working draft) at this meeting, including a variant of joining_thread with cooperative cancellation, lock-free programming techniques for reclamation, and stackful coroutines (which I’ve mentioned above in connection with the Coroutines TS).

Executors are still likely slated for a separate TS. The unified proposal presented at the last meeting has been simplified as requested, to narrow its scope to something manageable for initial standardization.

Merging Technical Specifications Into C++20

We have some technical specifications that are already published and haven’t been merged into C++17, and are thus candidates for merging into C++20. I already mentioned that Concepts was merged with some modifications (details below).

Parts of the Concurrency TS are slated to be merged into C++20: latches, with barriers to hopefully follow after some design issues are ironed out, and an improved version of atomic shared pointers. future.then() is going to require some more iteration before final standardization.

The Transactional Memory TS currently has only one implementation; the Study Group that worked on it hopes for some more implementation and usage experience prior to standardization.

The Library Fundamentals TS v2 seems to be in good shape to be merged into C++20, though I’m not sure of the exact status / concrete plans.

In addition to the TSes that are already published, many people are eager to see the TSes that were just published (Coroutines, Ranges, and Networking), as well as Modules, make it into C++20 too. I think it’s too early to try and predict whether they will make it. From a procedural point of view, there is enough time for all of these to complete their publication process and be merged in the C++20 timeframe. However, it will really depend on how much implementation and use experience these features get between now and the C++20 feature-complete date (sometime in 2019), and what the feedback from that experience is.

Future Technical Specifications

Finally, I’ll give some mention to some planned future Technical Specifications that don’t have an official project or working draft yet:


A proposal for static introspection (sometimes called “reflexpr” after the keyword it uses; see its summary, design, and specification for details) continues to head towards a Reflection TS. It has been approved by SG 7 (the Reflection and Metaprogramming Study Group) and the Evolution Working Group at previous meetings. This week, it was successfully reviewed by the Library Evolution Working Group, allowing it to move on to the Core and Library groups going forward.

Meanwhile, SG 7 is continuing to look at more forward-looking reflection and metaprogramming topics, such as a longer-term vision for metaprogramming, and a proposal for metaclasses (I talk more about these below).


The Graphics TS, which proposes to standardize a set of 2D graphics primitives inspired by cairo, continues to be under active review by the Library Evolution Working Group; the latest draft spec can be found here. The proposal is close to being forwarded to the Library Working Group, but isn’t quite there yet.

While I wasn’t present for its discussion in LEWG, I’m told that one of the changes that have been requested is to give the library a stateless interface. This matches the feedback I’ve heard from Mozilla engineers knowledgeable about graphics (and which I’ve tried to relay, albeit unsuccessfully, at a previous meeting).

Evolution Working Group

I’ll now write in a bit more detail about the technical discussions that took place in the Evolution Working Group, the subgroup that I sat in for the duration of the week.

All proposals discussed in EWG at this meeting were targeting C++20 (except for Modules, where we discussed changes targeting the Modules TS). I’ve categorized them into the usual “accepted”, “further work encouraged”, and “rejected” categories:

Accepted proposals:

  • Default member initializers for bitfields. Previously, bit-fields couldn’t have default member initializers; now they can, with the “natural” syntax, int x : 5 = 42; (brace initialization is also allowed). A disambiguation rule was added to deal with parsing ambiguities (since e.g. an = could conceivably be part of the bitfield width expression).
  • Tweaking the rules for constructor template argument deduction. At the last meeting, EWG decided that for wrapper types like tuple, copying should be preferable to wrapping; that is, something like tuple t{tuple{1, 2}}; should deduce the type of t as tuple<int, int> rather than tuple<tuple<int, int>>. However, it had been unclear whether this guidance applied to types like vector that had std::initializer_list constructors. EWG clarified that copying should indeed be preferred to wrapping for those types, too. (The paper also proposed several other tweaks to the rules, which did not gain consensus to be approved just yet; the author will come back with a revised paper for those.)
  • Resolving a language defect related to defaulted copy constructors. This was actually a proposal that I co-authored, and it was prompted by me running into this language defect in Mozilla code (it prevented the storing of an nsAutoPtr inside a std::tuple). It’s also, to date, my first proposal to be approved by EWG!
  • A simpler solution to the problem that allowing the template keyword in unqualified-ids aimed to solve. While reviewing that proposal, the Core Working Group found that the relevant lookup rules could be tweaked so as to avoid having to use the template keyword at all. The proposed rules technically change the meaning of certain existing code patterns, but only ones that are very obscure and unlikely to occur in the wild. EWG was, naturally, delighted with this simplification.
  • An attribute to mark unreachable code. This proposal aims to standardize existing practice where a point in the code that the author expects cannot be reached is marked with __builtin_unreachable() or __assume(false). The initial proposal was to make the standardized version an [[unreachable]] attribute, but based on EWG’s feedback, this was revised to be a std::unreachable() library function instead. The semantics is that if such a call is reached during execution, the behaviour is undefined. (EWG discussed at length whether this facility should be tied to the Contracts proposal. The outcome was that it should not be; since “undefined behaviour” encompasses everything, we can later change the specified behaviour to be something like “call the contract violation handler” without that being a breaking change.) The proposal was sent to LEWG, which will design the library interface more precisely, and consider the possibility of passing in a compile-time string argument for diagnostic purposes.
  • Down with typename! This paper argued that in some contexts where typename is currently required to disambiguate a name nested in a dependent scope as being a type, the compiler can actually disambiguate based on the context, and proposed removing the requirement of writing typename in such contexts. The proposal passed with flying colours. (It was, however, pointed out that the proposal prevents certain hypothetical future extensions. For example, one of the contexts in question is y in using x = y;: that can currently only be a type. However, suppose we later want to add expression aliases to C++; this proposal rules out re-using the using x = y; syntax for them.)
  • Removing throw(). Dynamic exception specifications have been deprecated since C++11 (superseded by noexcept), and removed altogether in C++17, with the exception of throw() as an alias for noexcept(true). This paper proposed removing that last vestige, too, and EWG approved it. (The paper also proposed removing some other things that were deprecated in C++17, which were rejected; I mention those in the list of rejected proposals below.)
  • Ranged-based for statement with initializer. This introduces a new form of range-for: for (T var = init; U elem : <range-expression>); here, var is a variable that lives for the duration of the loop, and can be referenced by <range-expression> (whereas elem is the usual loop variable that takes on a new value on every iteration). This is useful for both scope hygiene (it avoids polluting the enclosing scope with var) and resolving a category of lifetime issues with range-for. EWG expressed concerns about parseability (parsers will now need to perform more lookahead to determine which form of loop they are parsing) and readability (the “semicolon colon” punctuation in a loop header of this form can look deceptively like the “semicolon semicolon” punctuation in a traditional for loop), but passed the proposal anyways.
  • Some changes to the Modules TS (other proposed changes were deferred to Modules v2) – I talk about these below
  • Changes to Concepts – see below

Proposals for which further work is encouraged:

  • Non-throwing container operations. This paper acknowledges the reality that many C++ projects are unable to or choose not to use exceptions, and proposes that standard library container types which currently rely on exceptions to report memory allocation failure, provide an alternative API that doesn’t use exceptions. Several concrete alternatives are mentioned. EWG sent this proposal to the Library Evolution Working Group to design a concrete alternative API, with the understanding that the resulting proposal will come back to EWG for review as well.
  • Efficient sized deletion for variable-sized classes. This proposal builds on the sized deletion feature added to C++14 to enable this optimization for “variable-sized classes” (that is, classes that take control of their own allocation and allocate a variable amount of extra space before or after the object itself to store extra information). EWG found the use cases motivating, but encouraged the development of a syntax that less prone to accidental misuse, as well as additional consultation with implementers to ensure that ABI is not broken.
  • Return type deduction and SFINAE. This paper proposes a special syntax for single-expression lambdas, which would also come with the semantic change that the return expression be subject to SFINAE (this is a desirable property that often leads authors to repeat the return expression, wrapped in decltype, in an explicit return type declaration (and then to devise macros to avoid the repetition)). EWG liked the goal but had parsing-related concerns about the syntax; the author was encouraged to continue exploring the syntax space to find something that’s both parseable and readable. Continued exploration of terser lambdas, whether as part of the same proposal or a separate proposal, was also encouraged. It’s worth noting that there was another proposal in the mailing (which wasn’t discussed since the author wasn’t present) that had significant overlap with this proposal; EWG observed that it might make sense to collaborate on a revised proposal in this space.
  • Default-constructible stateless lambdas. Lambdas are currently not default-constructible, but for stateless lambdas (that is, lambdas that do not capture any variables) there is no justification for this restriction, so this paper proposed removing it. EWG agreed, but suggested that they should also be made assignable. (An example of a situation where one currently runs into these restrictions is transform iterators: such iterators often aggregate the transformation function, and algorithms often default-construct or assign iterators.)
  • Product type access. Recall that structured bindings work with both tuple-like types, and structures with public members. The former expose get<>() functions to access the tuple elements by index; for the latter, structured bindings achieve such index-based access by “language magic”. This paper proposed exposing such language magic via a new syntax or library interface, so that things other than structured bindings (for example, code that wants to iterate over the public members of a structure) can take advantage of it. EWG agreed this was desirable, expressed a preference for a library interface, and sent the proposal onward to LEWG to design said interface. (Compilers will likely end up exposing intrinsics to allow library implementers to implement such an interface. I personally don’t see the advantage of doing things this way over just introducing standard language syntax, but I’m happy to get the functionality one way or the other.)
  • Changing the attack vector of constexpr_vector. At the previous meeting, implementers reported that supporting full-blown dynamic memory allocation in a constexpr context was not feasible to implement efficiently, and suggested a more limited facility, such as a special constexpr_vector container. This proposal argues that such a container would be too limiting, and suggests supporting a constexpr allocator (which can then be used with regular containers) instead. Discussion at this meeting suggested that (a) on the one hand, a constexpr allocator is no less general (and thus no easier to support) than new itself; but (b) on the other hand, more recent implementer experiments suggest that supporting new itself, with some limitations, might be feasible after all. Continued exploration of this topic was warmly encouraged.
  • Implicit evaluation of auto variables. This is a resurrection of an earlier proposal to allow a class to opt into having a conversion function of some sort called when an instance of it is assigned to an auto-typed variable. The canonical use case is an intermediate type is an expression template system, for which it’s generally desirable to trigger evaluation when initializing an auto-typed variable. EWG wasn’t fond of widening the gap between the deduction rules for auto and the deduction rules for template parameters (which is what auto is modelled on), and suggested approaching the problem form a different angle; one idea that was thrown around was the possibility of extending the notion of deduction guides (currently used for class template argument deduction) to apply to situations like this.
  • Allowing class template specializations in unrelated namespaces. The motivation here is to avoid having to reopen the namespace in which a class template was defined, to provide a specialization of that template. EWG liked the idea, but suggested that it might be prudent to still restrict such specializations to occur within associated namespaces of the specialization (e.g. the namespaces of the specialization’s template arguments) – kind of like how Rust doesn’t allow you to implement a trait unless you’re either the author of the trait, or the author of the type you’re implementing the trait for.
  • Precise semantics for contract assertions. This paper explores the design space of contract assertions, enumerating the various (sometimes contradictory) objectives we may want to achieve by using them, and proposes a set of primitive operations that facilitate implementing assertions in ways that meet useful subsets of these objectives. EWG expressed an interest in standardizing some of the proposed primitives, specifically a mechanism to deliberately introduce unspecified (nondeterministic) behaviour into a program, and a “prevent continuation handler” that an assertion check can invoke if an assertion fails and execution should not continue as a result. (A third primitive, for deliberately invoking undefined behaviour, is already handled by the independently proposed std::unreachable() function that EWG approved at this meeting.)

Rejected proposals:

  • Attributes for structured bindings. This proposal would have allowed applying attributes to individual bindings, such as auto [a, b [[maybe_unused]], c] = f();. EWG found this change insufficiently motivated; some people also thought it was inappropriate to give individual bindings attributes when we can’t even give them types.
  • Making pointers-to-members callable. This would have allowed p(s) to be valid and equivalent to s.*p when p is a pointer to a member of a type S, and s is an object of that type. It had been proposed before, and was rejected for largely the same reason: some people argued that it was a half-baked unified call syntax proposal. (I personally thought this was a very sensible proposal – not at all like unified call syntax, which was controversial for changing name lookup rules, which this proposal didn’t do.)
  • Explicit structs. The proposal here was to allow marking a struct as explicit, which meant that all its fields had to be initialized, either by a default member initializer, by a constructor intializer, or explicitly by the caller (not relying on the fallback to default initialization) during aggregate initialization. EWG didn’t find this well enough motivated, observing that either your structure has an invariant, in which case it’s likely to be more involved than “not the default values”, or it doesn’t, in which case the default values should be fine. (Uninitialized values, which can arise for primitive types, are another matter, and can be addressed by different means, such as via the [[uninitialized]] attribute proposal.)
  • Changing the way feature-test macros are standardized. Feature test macros (like __cpp_constexpr, intended to be defined by an implementation if it supports constexpr) are currently standardized in the form of a standing document published by the committee, which is not quite a standard (for example, it does not undergo balloting by national bodies). As they have become rather popular, Microsoft proposed that they be standardized more formally; they claimed that it’s something they’d like to support, but can’t unless it’s a formal standard, because they’re trying to distance themselves from their previous habit of supporting non-standard extensions. (I didn’t quite follow the logic behind this, but I guess large companies sometimes operate in strange ways.) However, there was no consensus to change how feature test macros are standardized; some on the committee dislike them, in part because of their potential for fragmentation, and because they don’t completely remove the need for compiler version checks and such (due to bugs etc.)
  • Removing other language features deprecated in C++17. In addition to throw() (whose removal passed, as mentioned above), two other removals were proposed.
    • Out-of-line declarations of static constexpr data members. By making static constexpr data members implicitly inline, C++17 made it so that the in-line declaration which provides the value is also a definition, making an out-of-line declaration superfluous. Accordingly, the ability to write such an out-of-line declaration at all was deprecated, and was now proposed for removal in C++20.
    • Implicit generation of a copy constructor or copy assignment operator in a class with a user-defined copy assignment operator, copy constructor, or destructor. This has long been known to be a potential footgun (since generally, if you need to user-define one of these functions, you probably need to user-define all three), and C++11 already broke with this pattern by having a user-defined move operation disable implicit generation of the copy operations. The committee has long been eyeing the possibility extending this treatment to user-defined copy operations, and the paper suggested that perhaps C++20 would be the time to do so. However, the reality is that there still is a lot of code out there that relies on this implicit generation, and much of it isn’t actually buggy (though much of it is).

    Neither removal gained consensus. In each case, undeprecating them was also proposed, but that was rejected too, suggesting that the hope that these features can be removed in a future standard remains alive.

  • Capturing *this with initializer. C++17 added the ability to have a lambda capture the entire *this object by value. However, it’s still not possible to capture it by move (which may be reasonable if e.g. constructing the lambda is the last thing you do with the current object). To rectify this, this paper proposed allowing the capture of *this with the init-capture syntax. Unfortunately, this effectively allows rebinding this to refer to a completely unrelated object inside the lambda, which EWG believed would be far too confusing, and there didn’t appear to be a way to restrict the feature to only work for the intended use case of moving the current object.
  • bit_sizeof and bit_offsetof. These are similar to sizeof and offsetof, but count the number of bits, and work on bitfield members. EWG preferred to hold off on these until they are implementable with a library interface on top of reflection.
  • Parametric functions. This oddly-named proposal is really a fresh approach to named arguments. In contrast with the named arguments proposal that I co-authored a few years back, which proposed to allow using named arguments with existing functions and existing parameter names (and garnered significant opposition over concerns that it would make parameter names part of a function’s interface when the function hadn’t been written with that in mind), this paper proposed introducing a new kind of function, which can have named arguments, declared with a new syntax, and for which the parameter names are effectively part of the function’s type. While this approach does address the concerns with my proposal, EWG felt the new syntax and new language machinery it would require was disproportionate to the value of the feature. In spite of the idea’s repeated rejection, no one was under any illusion that this would be the last named arguments proposal to come in front of EWG.

There were a handful of proposals that were not discussed due to their authors not being present. They included the other terse lambdas proposal and its offshoot idea of making forwarding less verbose, and a proposal for an [[uninitialized]] attribute.


A major focus of this meeting was to achieve consensus to get Concepts into C++20. To this end, EWG spent half a day plus an evening session discussing several papers on the topic.

Two of the proposals – a unified concept definition syntax and semantic constraint matching – were write-ups of design directions that had already been discussed and approved in Kona; their discussion at this meeting was more of a rubber-stamp. (The second paper contained a provision to require that re-declarations of a constrained template use the same syntax (e.g. you can’t have one using requires-clauses and the other using a shorthand form); this provision had some objections, just as it did in Kona, but was passed anyways.)

EWG next looked at a small proposal to address certain syntax ambiguities; the affected scenarios involve constrained function templates with a requires-clause, where it can be ambiguous where the require-clause after the template parameter list ends, and where the function declaration itself begins. The proposed solution was to restrict the grammar for the expression allowed in a top-level requires-clauses so as to remove the ambiguity; expressions that don’t fit in the restricted grammar can still be used if they are parenthesized (as in requires (expr)). This allows common forms of constraints (like trait<T>::value or trait_v<T>) to be used without parentheses, while allowing any expression with parentheses. This was also approved.

That brings us to the controversial part of the discussion: abbreviated function templates (henceforth, “AFTs”), also called “terse templates”. To recap, AFTs are function templates declared without a template parameter list, where the parameter types use concept names (or auto), which the compiler turns into invented template parameters. A canonical example is void sort(Sortable& s);, which is a shorthand for template <Sortable S> void sort(S& s); (which is itself a shorthand for template <typename S> requires Sortable<S> void sort(S& s);).

AFTs have been controversial since their introduction, due to their ability to make template code look like non-template code. Many have argued that this is a bad idea, beacuse template code is fundamentally different from non-template code (e.g. consider different name lookup rules, the need for syntactic disambiguators like typename, and the ability to define a function out of line). Others have argued that making generic programming (programming with templates) look more like regular programming is a good thing.

(A related feature that shared some of the controversy around AFTs was concept introductions, which were yet another shorthand, making Mergeable{In1, In2, Out} void merge(In1, In1, In2, Out); short for template <typename In1, typename In2, typename Out> requires Mergeable<In1, In2, Out> void merge(In1, In1, In2, Out);. Concept introductions don’t make a template look like a non-template the way AFTs do, but were still controversial as many felt they were an odd syntax and offered yet another way of defining constrained function templates with relatively little gain in brevity.)

The controversy around AFTs and concept introductions was one of the reasons the proposed merger of the Concepts TS into C++17 failed to gain consensus. Eager not to repeat this turn of events for C++20, AFTs and concept introductions were proposed for removal from Concepts, at least for the time being, with the hope that this would allow the merger of Concepts into C++20 to gain consensus. After a long and at times heated discussion, EWG approved this removal, and approved the merger of Concepts, as modified by this removal (and by the other proposals mentioned above), into C++20. As mentioned above, this merger was subsequently passed by the full committee at the end of the week, resulting in Concepts now being in the C++20 working draft!

It’s important to note that the removal of AFTs was not a rejection of having a terse syntax for defining constrained function templates in general. There is general agreement that such a terse syntax is desirable; people just want such a syntax to come with some kind of syntactic marker that makes it clear that a function template (as opposed to a non-template function) is being declared. I fully expect that proposals for an alternative terse syntax that comes with such a syntactic marker will forthcome (in fact, I’ve already been asked for feedback on one such draft proposal), and may even be approved in the C++20 timeframe; after all, we’re still relatively early in the C++20 cycle.

There was one snag about the removal of AFTs that happened at this meeting. In the Concepts wording, AFTs are specified using a piece of underlying language machinery called constrained type specifiers. Besides AFTs, this machinery powers some other features of Concepts, such as the ability to write ConceptName var = expr;, or even vector<auto> var = expr;. While these other features weren’t nearly as controversial as AFTs were, from a specification point of view, removing AFTs while keeping these in would have required a significant refactor of the wording that would have been difficult to accomplish by the end of the week. Since the committee wanted to “strike the iron while it’s hot” (meaning, get Concepts into C++20 while there is consensus for doing so), it was decided that for the time being, constrained type specifiers would be removed altogether. As a result, in the current C++20 working draft, things like vector<auto> var = expr; are ill-formed. However, it’s widely expected that this feature will make it back into C++20 Concepts at future meetings.

Lastly, I’ll note that there were two proposals (one I co-authored, and a second one that didn’t make the pre-meeting mailing) concerning the semantics of constrained type specifiers. The removal of constrained type specifiers made these proposals moot, at least for the time being, so they were not discussed at this meeting. However, as people propose re-adding some of the uses of constrained type specifiers, and/or terse templates in some form, these papers will become relevant again, and I expect they will be discussed at that time.


Another major goal of the meeting was to send out the Modules TS for its PDTS ballot. I gave an overview of the current state of Modules above. Here, I’ll mention the Modules-related proposals that came before EWG this week:

  • Distinguishing the declaration of a module interface unit from the declaration of a module implementation unit. The current syntax is module M; for both. In Kona, a desire was expressed for interface units to have a separate syntax, and accordingly, one was proposed: export module M;. (The re-use of the export keyword here is due to the committee’s reluctance to introduce new keywords, even context-sensitive ones. module interface M; would probably have worked with interface being a keyword in this context only.) This was approved for the Modules TS.
  • Module partitions (first part of the paper only). These are module units that form part of a module interface, rather than being a complete module interface; the proposed syntax in this paper is module M [[partition]];. This proposal failed to gain consensus, not over syntax concerns, but over semantic concerns: unlike the previous module partitions proposal (which was not presented at this meeting, ostensibly for lack of time), this proposal did not provide for a way for partitions to declare dependencies on each other; rather, each partition was allowed to depend on entities declared in all other partitions, but only on their forward-declarations, which many felt was too limiting. (The corresponding implementation model was to do a quick “heuristic parse” of all partitions to gather such forward-declarations, and then do full processing of the partitions in parallel; this itself resulted in some raised eyebrows, as past experience doing “heuristic parsing” of C++ hasn’t been very promising.) Due to the controversy surrounding this topic, and not wanting to hold up the Modules TS, EWG decided to defer module partitions to Modules v2.
  • Exporting using-declarations. This wasn’t so much a proposal, as a request for clarification of the semantics. The affected scenario was discussed, and the requested clarification given; no changes to the Modules TS were deemed necessary.
  • Name clashes between private (non-exported) entities declared in different modules. Such a name clash is ill-formed (an ODR violation) according to the current spec; several people found that surprising, since one of the supposed advantages of Modules is to shield non-exported entities like private helpers from the outside world. This matter was discussed briefly, but a resolution was postponed to after the PDTS ballot (note: that’s not the same as being postponed to Modules v2; changes can be made to the Modules TS between the PDTS ballot and final publication).
  • A paper describing some requirements that a Modules proposal would need to have to be useful in evolving a particular large codebase (Bloomberg’s). Discussion revealed that the current spec meets some but not all of these requirements; the gaps mainly concern the ability to take a legacy (non-modular) code component, and non-intrusively (“additively”) provide a modular “view” of that component. No changes were proposed at this time, but some changes to fill these gaps are likely to appear as comments on the PDTS ballot.
  • Identifying module source code. Currently, the module M; or export module M; declaration that introduces a module unit is not required to be the first declaration in the file. Preceding declarations are interpreted as being part of the global module (and this is often used to e.g. include legacy headers). The author of this proposal would nonetheless like something that’s required to be the first declaration in the file, that announces “this file is a module unit”, and proposed module ; as being such a marker. EWG was favourable to the idea, but postponed discussion of a concrete syntax until after the PDTS.

With these discussions having taken place, the committee was successful in getting Modules sent out for its PDTS ballot. This is very exciting – it’s a major milestone for Modules! At the same time, I think it’s clear from the nature of the some of the proposals being submitted on the topic (including the feedback from implementation and deployment experience at Google, some of which is yet to be fully discussed by EWG) that this is a feature where there’s still a fair amount of room for implementation convergence and user feedback to gain confidence that the feature as specified will be useful and achieve its intended objectives for a broad spectrum of C++ users. The PDTS ballot formally begins the process of collecting that feedback, which is great! I am very curious about the kinds of comments it will garner.

If you’re interested in Modules, I encourage you to give the prototype implementations in Clang and MSVC a try, play around with them, and share your thoughts and experiences. (Formal PDTS comments can be submitted via your national standards body, but you can also provide informal feedback on the committee’s public mailing lists.)

Other Working Groups

The Library Working Group had a busy week, completing its wording review of the Ranges TS, Networking TS, and library components of the Coroutines TS, and allowing all three of these to be published at the end of the week. They are also in the process of reviewing papers targeting C++20 (including span, which provides an often-requested “array view” facility), Parallelism TS v2, and Library Fundamentals TS v3.

The Library Evolution Working Group was, as usual, working through its large backlog of proposed new library features. As much as I’d love to follow this group in as much detail as I follow EWG, I can’t be in two places at once, so I can’t give a complete listing of the proposals discussed and their outcomes, but I’ll mention a few highlights:

SG 7 (Reflection and Metaprogramming)

SG 7 met for an evening session and discussed three topics.

The first was an extension to the existing static reflection proposal (which is headed towards publication as the initial Reflection TS) to allow reflection of functions. Most of the discussion concerned a particular detail: whether you should be allowed to reflect over the names of a function’s parameters. It was decided that you should, but that in the case of a function with multiple declarations, the implementation is free to choose any one of them as the source of the reflected parameter names.

The second topic was what we want metaprogramming to look like in the longer term. There was a paper exploring the design space that identified three major paradigms: type-based metaprogramming (examples: Boost.MPL, the current static reflection proposal), heterogenerous value-based (example: Boost.Hana), and homogeneous value-based (this would be based on constexpr metaprogramming, and would require some language extensions). Another paper then argued that the third one, homogeneous value-based metaprogramming, is the best choice, both from a compile-time performance perspective (the other two involve a lot of template instantiations which are compile-time expensive), and because it makes metaprogramming look more like regular programming, making it more accessible. SG 7 agreed that this is the long-term direction we should aim for. Note that this implies that, while the Reflection TS will likely be published in its current form (with its type-based interface), prior to merger into the C++ IS it would likely be revised to have a homogenerous value-based interface.

The third topic was a proposal for a more advanced reflection/metaprogramming feature, metaclasses. Metaclasses combine reflection facilities with proposed code injection facilities to allow class definitions to undergo arbitrary user-defined compile-time transformations. A metaclass can be thought of as a “kind” or category of class; a class definition can be annotated (exact syntax TBD) to declare the class as belonging to that metaclass, and such a class definition will undergo the transformations specified in the metaclass definition. Examples of metaclasses might be “interfaces”, where the transformation includes making every method pure virtual, and “value types”, where the transformation includes generating memberwise comparison operators; widely used metaclasses could eventually become part of the standard library. Obviously, this is a very powerful feature, and the proposal is at a very early stage; many aspects, including the proposed code injection primitives (which are likely to be pursued as a separate proposal), need further development. Early feedback was generally positive, with some concerns raised about the feature allowing codebases to grow their own “dialects” of C++.

The Velocity of C++ Evolution

C++ standardization has accelerated since the release of C++11, with the adoption of a three-year standardization cycle, the use of Technical Specifications to gather early feedback on major new features, and an increase in overall participation and the breadth of domain areas and user communities represented in the committee.

All the same, sometimes it feels like the C++ language is still slow to evolve, and a big part of that is the significant constraint of needing to remain backwards-compatible, as much as possible, with older versions of the language. (Minor breakages have occurred, of course, like C++11 user-defined literals changing the meaning of "literal"MACRO. But by and large, the committee has held backwards-compatibility as one of its cornerstone principles.)

A paper, discussed at an evening session this week, explores the question of whether, in today’s age of modern tools, the committee still need to observe this constraint as strictly as it has in the past. The paper observes that it’s already the case that upgrading to a newer compiler version typically entails making some changes / fixes to a codebase. Moreover, in cases where a language change does break or change the meaning of code, compilers have gotten pretty good at warning users about it so they can fix their code accordingly (e.g. consider clang’s -Wc++11-compat warnings). The paper argues that, perhaps, the tooling landscape has matured to the point where we should feel free to make larger breaking changes, as long as they’re of the sort that compilers can detect and warn about statically, and rely on (or even require) compilers to warn users about affected code, allowing them to make safe upgrades (tooling could potentially help with the upgrades, too, in the form of automated refactorings). This would involve more work for compiler implementers, and more work for maintainers of code when upgrading compilers, but the reward of allowing the language to shed some of its cumbersome legacy features may be worth it.

The committee found this idea intriguing. No change in policy was made at this time, but further exploration of the topic was very much encouraged.

If the committee does end up going down this path, one particularly interesting implication would be about the future of the standard library. The Concepts-enabled algorithms in the Ranges TS are not fully backwards-compatible with the algorithms in the current standard library. As a result, when the topic of how to merge the Ranges TS into the C++ standard came up, the best idea people had was to start an “STLv2”, a new version of the standard library that makes a clean break from the current version, while being standardized alongside it. However, in a world where we are not bound to strict backwards-compatibility, that may not be necessary – we may just be able to merge the Ranges TS into the current standard library, and live with the resulting (relatively small) amount of breakage to existing code.


With C++17 effectively done, the committee had a productive meeting working on C++20 and advancing Technical Specifications like Modules and Coroutines.

The merger of Concepts into C++20 was a definite highlight of this meeting – this feature has been long in the making, having almost made C++11, and its final arrival is worth celebrating. Sending out Modules for its PDTS ballot was a close second, as it allows us to start collecting formal feedback on this very important C++ feature. And there are many other goodies in the pipeline: Ranges, Networking, Coroutines, contracts, reflection, graphics, and many more.

The next meeting of the Committee will be in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the week of November 6th, 2017. Stay tuned for my report!

Other Trip Reports

Others have written reports about this meeting as well. Some that I’ve come across include Herb Sutter’s and Guy Davidson’s. Michael Wong also has a report written just before the meeting, that covers concurrency-related topics in more depth than my reports. I encourage you to check them out!


About botondballo

I am a recent graduate of the University of Toronto, with a degree in Computer Science. I currently work for Mozilla as a software engineer.
This entry was posted in c++, programming and tagged , , . Bookmark the permalink.

6 Responses to Trip Report: C++ Standards Meeting in Toronto, July 2017

  1. lanoxx says:


    Thanks again for this very detailed report. Reading your regular trip reports has already become a habbit for me and I have been checking your blog frequently in the past days to see if there was a new report.

    I am particularly interested to know if there is any knews on the Modules side with respect to exporting macros from a module. As you reported in one of your previous articles there have been some controversies between the clang and MSVC sides. Are you aware of any tendencies in this direction? From my point of view it would be very useful if macros could be exported. In particular because there are so many existing code bases that make use of macros.

    • botondballo says:

      I talked a bit about exporting macros in my last report:

      > At the October 2015 meeting (which, as it happens, was also in
      > Kona), it was decided that, since supporting macros is both
      > contentious and comes with significant implementation
      > complexity, Modules will initially be pursued in the form of a
      > Technical Specification that does not support macros, and
      > macro support can be considered for a second iteration of the
      > feature (which I’ll henceforth refer to as “Modules v2”; the
      > ship vehicle for that is still to be determined – it might be
      > a second Modules TS, or it might be C++20).

      Nothing has fundamentally changed since then, i.e. there are no plans to add macro support to Modules v1.

      It’s possible that a national body will send in a PDTS comment saying “macro support is really fundamental, we should not wait until Modules v2 to get it” – but unless that position garners a consensus among committee members (which would be somewhat of a surprise, given the previous consensus to wait until Modules v2), it is unlikely to result in a change in course.

      Keep in mind that Modules v1 is just a Technical Specification – there is still time for macro support to be added before the feature makes it into the C++ IS. If you’re in a position where you can’t use Modules v1 because it lacks macro support, that’s very useful feedback to send to the committee, and will be taken into consideration when discussing Modules v2.

  2. Moschops says:

    Hello. I wonder if you could explain a little bit of the procedure to me. When a proposal is forwarded to the Library Working Group, what does that imply? Is it an approval of that proposal (be it tacit or explicit), or does it just indicate that this proposal is now in a suitable state for consideration? What does the LWG assess? Do they assess the need for it, or do they purely assess its technical viability?

    • botondballo says:

      Good question! I wrote about the roles of the various working groups a while back (in this post, which is linked from my first trip report), but I haven’t mentioned them more recently.

      Basically, the Library Evolution Working Group reviews library proposals at a design level – is this something we want in the standard library? does it fit well into the rest of the standard library? is it well-designed? Once they approve the design, the Library Working Group reviews the specification at the wording level, to ensure that it reflects the intended design, that it’s detailed enough that someone can implement it purely from spec, and so on.

      (For core language proposals, the Evolution and Core working groups fill similar roles.)

      So, a proposal being forwarded to the Library Working Group means that the design of the feature has been approved, and you shouldn’t expect significant design changes between then and final standardization, only smaller changes concerning the details that might arise during LWG’s wording review. (There are occasional exceptions to this, like when a controversial proposal is approved by the relevant Evolution group but then voted down later in full committee, but that’s fairly rare.)

  3. So to continue working on Abbreviated Function Templates will there be yet another Technical Specification of Concepts?

    • botondballo says:

      I doubt that AFTs by themselves would be considered a significant enough feature to warrant a new Technical Specification. A new AFT proposal is likely to target C++20 directly.

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